Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000065.1:
Cluster 1Polyketide141591

BGC0000065, galbonolides biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces galbus. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: galbonolide A
PubChem ID: 6438453
SMILES string: Copy to clipboard
Molecular formula: C21H32O6
Average molecular mass: 380.481 Da
Molecular activity: Antifungal
Molecular target: inositol phosphoceramide synthase

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
Polyketide subclass:
Macrolide (cyclic)
Polyketide synthase subclass:
Iterative type I
Starter unit:
Polyketide synthase / ketosynthase-encoding genes:
Iterative PKS subtype:
Highly reducing
Number of iterations:
Thioesterase type:
Release / cyclization type:

Gene cluster description

galbonolides (BGC0000065). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = Polyketide. GenBank GU300145, positions 22963-11621. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

Homologous known gene clusters

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Knock-out studies
Comments:GalABC is proposed as a novel type of PKS: bacterial highly-reducing type iterative PKS incorporating methylmalonyl-CoA with highly programmed beta-keto group modifications, a discrete AT, and no distinctive releasing domain.
Contact for this cluster:Hyung-Jin Kwon (Myongji University)

Literature references

1. Karki S et al. (2010) The methoxymalonyl-acyl carrier protein biosynthesis locus and the nearby gene with the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain are involved in the biosynthesis of galbonolides in Streptomyces galbus, but these loci are separate from the modular polyketide synthase gene cluster. FEMS Microbiol Lett 310(1):69-75. doi:
2. Kim HJ et al. (2014) A single module type I polyketide synthase directs de novo macrolactone biogenesis during galbonolide biosynthesis in Streptomyces galbus. J Biol Chem 289(50):34557-68. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.602334. Epub