Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000285.1:
Cluster 1Polyketide / Saccharide111124

BGC0000285, red pigment biosynthetic gene cluster from Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: Flaviolin rhamnoside
SMILES string: Copy to clipboard
Molecular formula: C16H16O9
Exact molecular mass: 352.0794 Da ([M+H]+)
Molecular activity: Unknown

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
Polyketide / Saccharide
Polyketide subclass:
Chalcone (cyclic)
Polyketide synthase subclass:
Type III
Starter unit:
Polyketide synthase / ketosynthase-encoding genes:

Specificity: L-rhamnose
Evidence for specificity: structure-based inference

Gene cluster description

red pigment (BGC0000285). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = Polyketide/Saccharide. GenBank AY078067, positions 3111-5991. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

Homologous known gene clusters

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Knock-out studies
Comments:This type III PKS containing cluster is involved in the formation of red-brown pigment/melanin, and equivalent clusters have been studied in other organisms, e.g. PMID 10476972; 11723138; 15659395; 15701630; 16291687. The PKS product THN (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene) of these clusters are variously oxidized/dimerized/polymerized by the action of additional enzymes in the cluster including a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (RppB) and a monooxygenase of the cupin domain superfamily. The products of these clusters have been shown to provide resistance to UV radiation.
Contact for this cluster:Professor Barrie Wilkinson (John Innes Centre)

Literature references

1. Cortes J et al. (2002) Identification and cloning of a type III polyketide synthase required for diffusible pigment biosynthesis in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Mol Microbiol 44(5):1213-24.