Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000405.1:
Cluster 1NRP159497

BGC0000405, penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium chrysogenum. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: delta-(L-alpha-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteine-D-valine
ChEBI ID: 58572
SMILES string: Copy to clipboard
Molecular formula: C14H24N3O6S
Average molecular mass: 362.42200 Da
Molecular activity: Other

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
Beta-lactam (linear)
Thioesterase type:
Release / cyclization type:

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases:
pcbAB (ABR12615.1)
Module 0
A specificity: 2-Amino-adipic-acid
Evidence for specificity: Activity assay
C domain subtype: N/A
Module 1
A specificity: Cysteine
Evidence for specificity: Activity assay
C domain subtype: DCL
Module 2
A specificity: Valine
Evidence for specificity: Activity assay
AA is epimerized
C domain subtype: LCL

Gene cluster description

penicillin (BGC0000405). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = NRP. GenBank EF601124. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

Domain annotation

Homologous known gene clusters

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Enzymatic assays
Contact for this cluster:Arnold J.M. Driessen (University of Groningen)

Literature references

1. Smith DJ et al. (1990) Cloning and heterologous expression of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster from penicillum chrysogenum. Biotechnology (N Y) 8(1):39-41.
2. Diez B et al. (1990) The cluster of penicillin biosynthetic genes. Identification and characterization of the pcbAB gene encoding the alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase and linkage to the pcbC and penDE genes. J Biol Chem 265(27):16358-65.
3. Fierro F et al. (1995) The penicillin gene cluster is amplified in tandem repeats linked by conserved hexanucleotide sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(13):6200-4.
4. Theilgaard H et al. (2001) Quantitative analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum Wis54-1255 transformants overexpressing the penicillin biosynthetic genes. Biotechnol Bioeng 72(4):379-88.
5. van den Berg MA et al. (2007) Functional characterization of the penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster of Penicillium chrysogenum Wisconsin54-1255. Fungal Genet Biol 44(9):830-44. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2007.03.008. Epub
6. Nijland JG et al. (2010) Nonlinear biosynthetic gene cluster dose effect on penicillin production by Penicillium chrysogenum. Appl Environ Microbiol 76(21):7109-15. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01702-10. Epub
7. van den Berg MA et al. (2008) Genome sequencing and analysis of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum. Nat Biotechnol 26(10):1161-8. doi: 10.1038/nbt.1498. Epub 2008 Sep 28.