Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000598.1:
Cluster 1RiPP115050

BGC0000598, polytheonamides biosynthetic gene cluster from Candidatus Entotheonella sp.. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: polytheonamide A
PubChem ID: 44602391
SMILES string: Copy to clipboard
Molecular formula: C219H376N60O72S
Average molecular mass: 5033.825 Da
Molecular activity: Cytotoxic
Molecular target: acts as a minimalistic ion channel, inserts into cell membrane

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
RiPP subclass:
Proteusin (linear)
Peptides in this cluster:
Leader peptide length: 96
Follower peptide length: 48
Peptidase(s) involved in precursor cleavage:

Gene cluster description

polytheonamides (BGC0000598). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = RiPP. GenBank JX456532, positions 5500-20549. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Enzymatic assays, Heterologous expression, Sequence-based prediction
Comments:poyD and E activities were verified by co-expression with poyA. poy F activity was verified by co-expression with poy A and D.
Contact for this cluster:Eric J.N. Helfrich (Institute of Microbiology ETH Zurich)

Literature references

1. Freeman MF et al. (2012) Metagenome mining reveals polytheonamides as posttranslationally modified ribosomal peptides. Science 338(6105):387-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1226121. Epub 2012
2. Wilson MC et al. (2014) An environmental bacterial taxon with a large and distinct metabolic repertoire. Nature 506(7486):58-62. doi: 10.1038/nature12959. Epub 2014 Jan 29.
3. Hamada T et al. (2010) Solution structure of polytheonamide B, a highly cytotoxic nonribosomal polypeptide from marine sponge. J Am Chem Soc 132(37):12941-5. doi: 10.1021/ja104616z.
4. Inoue M et al. (2010) Total synthesis of the large non-ribosomal peptide polytheonamide B. Nat Chem 2(4):280-5. doi: 10.1038/nchem.554. Epub 2010 Feb 21.
5. Hamada T et al. (2005) Polytheonamides A and B, highly cytotoxic, linear polypeptides with unprecedented structural features, from the marine sponge, Theonella swinhoei. J Am Chem Soc 127(1):110-8. doi: 10.1021/ja045749e.