Gene cluster description
Homologous known gene clusters
General MIBiG information on this cluster
|Complete gene cluster sequence?||complete|
|Evidence for cluster-compound connection:||Knock-out studies, Enzymatic assays, Gene expression correlated with compound production, Sequence-based prediction|
|Comments:||The second genomic locus I listed for scytonemin biosynthesis involves 5 genes (Npun_F5232-Npun5236) that have been shown to be upregulated through cDNA analysis by UV light (as has the main scytonemin cluster) and are shown to be associated with the main scytonemin cluster in other cyanobacterial species but are separated from the scytonmein cluster in Nostoc. Also, the genes Npun_1277 and Npun_1278 are thought through sequence analysis to be involved in scytonemin biosynthesis, particularly signaling but are located on a different operon. These are included as part of the main scytonemin gene cluster however there is no experimental evidence to support this. All of the genes from Npun_R1260-Npun_R1276 have been shown through cDNA assays to be upregulated under UV light, a known key factor in the production of scytonemin.|
|Contact for this cluster:||Carla S. Jones (Roosevelt University)|
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2. Jones CS et al. (2011) Probing the in vivo biosynthesis of scytonemin, a cyanobacterial ultraviolet radiation sunscreen, through small scale stable isotope incubation studies and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Bioorg Med Chem 19(22):6620-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.06.005. Epub
3. Balskus EP, Walsh CT. (2008) Investigating the initial steps in the biosynthesis of cyanobacterial sunscreen scytonemin. J Am Chem Soc 130(46):15260-1. doi: 10.1021/ja807192u. Epub 2008 Oct
4. Soule T et al. (2007) Molecular genetics and genomic analysis of scytonemin biosynthesis in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. J Bacteriol 189(12):4465-72. doi: 10.1128/JB.01816-06. Epub 2007 Mar 9.
5. Balskus EP, Walsh CT. (2009) An enzymatic cyclopentyl[b]indole formation involved in scytonemin biosynthesis. J Am Chem Soc 131(41):14648-9. doi: 10.1021/ja906752u.
6. Soule T et al. (2009) Gene expression patterns associated with the biosynthesis of the sunscreen scytonemin in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 in response to UVA radiation. J Bacteriol 191(14):4639-46. doi: 10.1128/JB.00134-09. Epub 2009 May 8.
7. Jones CS et al. (2011) Probing the in vivo biosynthesis of scytonemin, a cyanobacterial ultraviolet radiation sunscreen, through small scale stable isotope incubation studies and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Bioorg Med Chem 19(22):6620-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.06.005. Epub
8. Soule T et al. (2009) A comparative genomics approach to understanding the biosynthesis of the sunscreen scytonemin in cyanobacteria. BMC Genomics 10:336. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-336.
9. Balskus EP et al. (2011) The biosynthesis of cyanobacterial sunscreen scytonemin in intertidal microbial mat communities. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 77(2):322-32. doi:
10. Ekebergh A et al. (2011) Oxidative coupling as a biomimetic approach to the synthesis of scytonemin. Org Lett 13(16):4458-61. doi: 10.1021/ol201812n. Epub 2011 Jul 25.
11. Stevenson CS et al. (2002) The identification and characterization of the marine natural product scytonemin as a novel antiproliferative pharmacophore. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303(2):858-66. doi: 10.1124/jpet.102.036350.
12. Garcia-Pichel F et al. (1992) Evidence for an ultraviolet sunscreen role of the extracellular pigment scytonemin in the terrestrial cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis sp. Photochem Photobiol 56(1):17-23.
13. Stevenson CS et al. (2002) Scytonemin--a marine natural product inhibitor of kinases key in hyperproliferative inflammatory diseases. Inflamm Res 51(2):112-4.
14. Proteau PJ et al. (1993) The structure of scytonemin, an ultraviolet sunscreen pigment from the sheaths of cyanobacteria. Experientia 49(9):825-9.