Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000829.1:
Cluster 1Alkaloid110094

BGC0000829, violacein biosynthetic gene cluster from Chromobacterium violaceum. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: violacein
ChemSpider ID: 8103672
SMILES string: Copy to clipboard
Molecular formula:
Average molecular mass: Da
Molecular activity: Antibacterial, Cytotoxic, Signalling, Other
Molecular target: Activates TNFr1

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
Alkaloid subclass:

Gene cluster description

violacein (BGC0000829). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = Alkaloid. GenBank AF172851. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

Homologous known gene clusters

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Knock-out studies, Sequence-based prediction
Contact for this cluster:Marcia S. Osburne (Tufts University)

Literature references

1. Hoshino T. (2011) Violacein and related tryptophan metabolites produced by Chromobacterium violaceum: biosynthetic mechanism and pathway for construction of violacein core. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91(6):1463-75. doi:
2. Duran M et al. (2010) Chromobacterium violaceum and its important metabolites--review. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 55(6):535-47. doi: 10.1007/s12223-010-0088-4.
3. Mizuoka T et al. (2010) Novel tryptophan metabolites, chromoazepinone A, B and C, produced by a blocked mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum, the biosynthetic implications and the biological activity of chromoazepinone A and B. Org Biomol Chem 8(14):3157-63. doi: 10.1039/c003837g. Epub 2010 May
4. Ahmetagic A, Pemberton JM. (2010) Stable high level expression of the violacein indolocarbazole anti-tumour gene cluster and the Streptomyces lividans amyA gene in E. coli K12. Plasmid 63(2):79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.plasmid.2009.11.004. Epub 2009 Dec
5. Carminatti CA et al. (2008) Anthranilate synthase subunit organization in Chromobacterium violaceum. Genet Mol Res 7(3):830-8.
6. Morohoshi T et al. (2008) N-acylhomoserine lactone regulates violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum type strain ATCC 12472. FEMS Microbiol Lett 279(1):124-30. doi:
7. Shinoda K et al. (2007) Biosynthesis of violacein: a genuine intermediate, protoviolaceinic acid, produced by VioABDE, and insight into VioC function. Chem Commun (Camb) (40):4140-2. doi: 10.1039/b705358d. Epub 2007 Aug
8. Balibar CJ, Walsh CT. (2006) In vitro biosynthesis of violacein from L-tryptophan by the enzymes VioA-E from Chromobacterium violaceum. Biochemistry 45(51):15444-57. doi: 10.1021/bi061998z. Epub 2006 Dec
9. Konzen M et al. (2006) Antioxidant properties of violacein: possible relation on its biological function. Bioorg Med Chem 14(24):8307-13. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2006.09.013. Epub
10. Sanchez C et al. (2006) Reevaluation of the violacein biosynthetic pathway and its relationship to indolocarbazole biosynthesis. Chembiochem 7(8):1231-40. doi: 10.1002/cbic.200600029.
11. Antonio RV, Creczynski-Pasa TB. (2004) Genetic analysis of violacein biosynthesis by Chromobacterium violaceum. Genet Mol Res 3(1):85-91.
12. Duran N, Menck CF. (2001 TI) Chromobacterium violaceum: a review of pharmacological and industiral perspectives. Crit Rev Microbiol 27(3):201-22. doi: 10.1080/20014091096747 .
13. Brady SF et al. (2001) Cloning and heterologous expression of a natural product biosynthetic gene cluster from eDNA. Org Lett 3(13):1981-4.
14. August PR et al. (2000) Sequence analysis and functional characterization of the violacein biosynthetic pathway from Chromobacterium violaceum. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2(4):513-9.
15. Momen AZ, Hoshino T. (2000) Biosynthesis of violacein: intact incorporation of the tryptophan molecule on the oxindole side, with intramolecular rearrangement of the indole ring on the 5-hydroxyindole side. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64(3):539-49. doi: 10.1271/bbb.64.539.