Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000993.1:
Cluster 1NRP / Polyketide140434

BGC0000993, FK228 biosynthetic gene cluster from Chromobacterium violaceum. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: FK228
SMILES string: Copy to clipboard
Molecular formula: C24H36N4O6S2
Exact molecular mass: 540.2 Da (None)
Molecular activity: Antifungal, Cytotoxic, Inhibitor
Molecular target: Histone deacetylases

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
NRP / Polyketide
Cyclic depsipeptide (cyclic)
Thioesterase type:
Type II
Release / cyclization type:

Polyketide subclass:
Macrolide (cyclic)
Polyketide synthase subclass:
Modular type I
Starter unit:
Thioesterase type:
Type II
Release / cyclization type:

Gene cluster description

FK228 (BGC0000993). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = NRP/Polyketide. GenBank EF210776, positions 2513-39006. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

Domain annotation

Homologous known gene clusters

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Knock-out studies, Enzymatic assays, Heterologous expression, Sequence-based prediction
Contact for this cluster:Yi-Qiang Cheng (University of North Texas Health Science Center)

Literature references

1. Cheng YQ et al. (2007) Characterization of a gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of anticancer agent FK228 in Chromobacterium violaceum No. 968. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(11):3460-9. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01751-06. Epub
2. Wang C et al. (2009) An FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase is involved in disulfide bond formation in FK228 anticancer depsipeptide. Chem Biol 16(6):585-93. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2009.05.005.
3. Potharla VY et al. (2011) New insights into the genetic organization of the FK228 biosynthetic gene cluster in Chromobacterium violaceum no. 968. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(4):1508-11. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01512-10. Epub
4. Wesener SR et al. (2011) Reconstitution of the FK228 biosynthetic pathway reveals cross talk between modular polyketide synthases and fatty acid synthase. Appl Environ Microbiol 77(4):1501-7. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01513-10. Epub
5. Li J et al. (2014) The structural basis of an NADP(+)-independent dithiol oxidase in FK228 biosynthesis. Sci Rep 4:4145. doi: 10.1038/srep04145.