Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000120.1:
Cluster 1Polyketide140217

BGC0000120, patulin biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium expansum. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: Patulin
Molecular activity: Cytotoxic

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
Polyketide subclass:
Other (cyclic)
Polyketide synthase subclass:
Iterative type I
Starter unit:
Polyketide synthase / ketosynthase-encoding genes:
Iterative PKS subtype:
Partially reducing
Number of iterations:
C2-C7 first
Thioesterase type:
Release / cyclization type:

Modular polyketide synthases:
patK (AIG62146.1)
Module 1
AT specificity: Malonyl-CoA
Evidence for specificity: Other
KR stereochemistry: Unknown
Scaffold-modifying domain: None
Module is iterated
Evidence for iteration: Unknown

Gene cluster description

patulin (BGC0000120). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = Polyketide. GenBank Not derived from GenBank. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

Domain annotation

Homologous known gene clusters

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Knock-out studies, Heterologous expression, Gene expression correlated with compound production, Sequence-based prediction
Comments:The patulin genes cluster and its boudaries have been validated by the deletetion of patL (AIG62143), gene encoding the specific transcription factor (PMID: 26582186 ). The patulin cluster has been described in A. clavatus (PMID:19383676) The role of PatH (AIG62144) , PatI (AIG62145) and PatG (AIG62133) has been determined by heterologous expression studies (PMID:19383676 and PMID:24334092) The role of PatE (AIG62134) has been determined by knock-out (27913847).
Contact for this cluster:Olivier Puel (National Institute of Agronomical Research, France)

Literature references

1. Tannous J et al. (2014) Sequencing, physical organization and kinetic expression of the patulin biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium expansum. Int J Food Microbiol 189:51-60. doi:
2. Snini SP et al. (2016) Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum. Mol Plant Pathol 17(6):920-30. doi: 10.1111/mpp.12338. Epub 2015 Dec
3. Tannous J et al. (2017) Patulin transformation products and last intermediates in its biosynthetic pathway, E- and Z-ascladiol, are not toxic to human cells. Arch Toxicol 91(6):2455-2467. doi: 10.1007/s00204-016-1900-y. Epub 2016
4. Snini SP et al. (2014) The gene PatG involved in the biosynthesis pathway of patulin, a food-borne mycotoxin, encodes a 6-methylsalicylic acid decarboxylase. Int J Food Microbiol 171:77-83. doi:
5. Artigot MP et al. (2009) Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two CYP619 cytochrome P450s involved in biosynthesis of patulin in Aspergillus clavatus. Microbiology 155(Pt 5):1738-47. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.024836-0. Epub 2009