Genomic loci for this biosynthetic pathway

Cluster Type From To
The following clusters are from record BGC0000893.1:
Cluster 1NRP122006

BGC0000893, chloramphenicol biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces venezuelae. Locus 1. Full MIBiG entry.

Chemical compounds

Compound: chloramphenicol
PubChem ID: 5959
ChemSpider ID: 5744
SMILES string: Copy to clipboard
Molecular formula: C11H12Cl2N2O5
Average molecular mass: 323.126 Da
Molecular activity: Antibacterial
Molecular target: 23S rRNA

Class-specific details

Biosynthetic class(es):
Other (linear)
Thioesterase type:
Release / cyclization type:
Reductive release

Gene cluster description

chloramphenicol (BGC0000893). Gene Cluster 1. Biosynthetic class = NRP. GenBank FR845719, positions 1039846-1061851. Click on genes for more information.


biosynthetic genes
transport-related genes
regulatory genes
other genes

Homologous known gene clusters

General MIBiG information on this cluster

Complete gene cluster sequence?complete
Evidence for cluster-compound connection:Knock-out studies, Enzymatic assays, Heterologous expression, Gene expression correlated with compound production, Sequence-based prediction
Comments:Chloramphenicol gene cluster comprises 17 genes (sven_0913 to sven_0929) including a monomodular NRPS.
Contact for this cluster:Juan Pablo Gomez-Escribano (John Innes Centre; Norwich Research Park; Norwich; NR4 7UH; UK)

Literature references

1. He J et al. (2001) The gene cluster for chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 includes novel shikimate pathway homologues and a monomodular non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene. Microbiology 147(Pt 10):2817-29. doi: 10.1099/00221287-147-10-2817.
2. Fernandez-Martinez LT et al. (2014) New insights into chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 10712. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58(12):7441-50. doi: 10.1128/AAC.04272-14.
3. Bulkley D et al. (2010) Revisiting the structures of several antibiotics bound to the bacterial ribosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(40):17158-63. doi:
4. Yanai K et al. (2004) Para-position derivatives of fungal anthelmintic cyclodepsipeptides engineered with Streptomyces venezuelae antibiotic biosynthetic genes. Nat Biotechnol 22(7):848-55. doi: 10.1038/nbt978. Epub 2004 Jun 6.
5. Makris TM et al. (2010) A family of diiron monooxygenases catalyzing amino acid beta-hydroxylation in antibiotic biosynthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(35):15391-6. doi:
6. Lu H et al. (2012) CmlI is an N-oxygenase in the biosynthesis of chloramphenicol. LID - 10.1016/j.tet.2012.06.036 [doi] Tetrahedron 68(37). doi: 10.1016/j.tet.2012.06.036.
7. Latimer R et al. (2009) Expression, purification and preliminary diffraction studies of CmlS. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 65(Pt 3):260-3. doi:
8. Piraee M et al. (2004) Biosynthesis of the dichloroacetyl component of chloramphenicol in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: genes required for halogenation. Microbiology 150(Pt 1):85-94. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.26319-0.